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Uber and LastPass breaches – is 2FA all it’s cracked as much as be? [Audio + Text] – Bare Safety

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With Doug Aamoth and Paul Ducklin.

DOUG.  Uber hacked, extra on the LastPass breach, and Firefox 105.

All that, and extra, on the Bare Safety Podcast.

[MUSICAL MODEM]

Welcome to the podcast, all people, I’m Doug Aamoth.

With me, as at all times, is Paul Ducklin…

[DRAMATIC VOICE] …the host of Safety SOS Week, a star-studded lineup of interviews with safety specialists operating from 26-29 September 2022.


DUCK.  I just like the sound of that, Doug. [LAUGHS]


DOUG.  Sure!


DUCK.  Please be a part of us subsequent week, of us.

It’s the final week of September.

We selected that as a result of it’s the week main as much as Cybersecurity Consciousness Month – that’s not a coincidence.

So, 26, 27, 28, and 29 September 2022.

Every day there’s a 30-minute interview with one among 4 totally different specialists at Sophos.

We’ve obtained Fraser Howard, malware professional extraordinaire.

We’ve obtained Greg Rosenberg, who will clarify the challenges of detecting that somebody is in your community to begin with, so you possibly can head them off earlier than it goes improper.

There’s Peter Mackenzie from our Incident Response Crew, who will inform you some fascinating, scary, however very academic tales about attackers that he’s been despatched into bat in opposition to.

And we wrap all of it up with Craig Jones, who will inform you the right way to arrange a SecOps group of your personal.

Craig is the Senior Director of Safety Operations *at Sophos itself*, Doug, so he does cybersecurity in a cybersecurity firm.

He’s a beautiful chap, and properly price listening to.

The URL is: https://sophos.com/sosweek


DOUG.  Can’t wait… I might be there!

Please be a part of me, everybody – it is going to be a rollicking good time.

And talking of a rollicking good time, it’s time for our This Week in Tech Historical past phase.

One thing that’s close to and expensive to my coronary heart – this week, on 23 September 2008, the world’s first Android cellphone was launched.

It was known as the T-Cell G1, and it featured a 3.2-inch flip-out display screen that exposed a full {hardware} keyboard.

It additionally had a trackball and no customary headphone jack.

Early opinions had been combined, however hopeful.

Due to Android’s comparatively open nature, G1 went on to promote 1,000,000 handsets in six months, and at one level accounted for two-thirds of units on T-Cell’s 3G community.

I had a kind of units… it was one among my favourite telephones of all time.


DUCK.  Aaaaah, trackballs on telephones, eh?

Keep in mind the BlackBerries?

It was the factor, wasn’t it… that trackball was actually nice.


DOUG.  It was good for scrolling.


DUCK.  Then they went, “Out with transferring elements,” and it was an infrared sensor or one thing.


DOUG.  Sure.


DUCK.  How instances change, Doug.


DOUG.  Sure… I miss it.


DUCK.  Such as you, I preferred these slide-out keyboards that the early telephones had.

There’s one thing reassuring about really listening to the click-click-click.

I believe what I actually preferred about it’s that while you popped out the keyboard, it didn’t obscure half the display screen.


DOUG.  Precisely!


DUCK.  It wasn’t like half the e-mail you’re studying disappeared while you wished to answer.

Which I suppose we’ve simply obtained used to now… that’s the way in which of the world, I suppose.


DOUG.  That was a very long time in the past – less complicated instances.

Let’s discuss in regards to the Firefox 105 launch.

What’s new from a safety standpoint right here, Paul?


DUCK.  Thankfully, nothing that seems to be within the wild and nothing that charges a crucial stage of vulnerability.

However there are a couple of intriguing vulnerabilities.

One by which a person internet web page that’s break up right into a bunch of separate IFRAMES may have safety permission leakage between these parts.

So, you may need a less-privileged body from a subdomain in your web site, for instance, that isn’t supposed to have the ability to entry the webcam (as a result of this bug is about gadget permissions), but it seems to be as if you may really find a way to take action.

And one other related sounding bug, the place a subdomain of your web site – a weblog or a microsite or one thing like that – may really mess with cookies within the mum or dad web site.

Oh, and previous “stack buffer overflow when initialising graphics”… only a reminder that reminiscence bugs are nonetheless an issue!

And naturally, there’s the standard “reminiscence security bugs fastened in Firefox 105”, and within the Prolonged Help Launch, which is 102.3.

Do not forget that within the Prolonged Help Launch, the 2 numbers add collectively: 102+3 = 105.

So, the Prolonged Help Launch is all the things from the principle model quantity, plus three updates price of safety fixes, however with the function fixes held again.

So get it whereas it’s recent.


DOUG.  Please do!

Let’s transfer on to the story of the century, breathlessly reported: “Uber has been hacked.”

Wanting a little bit nearer at it… sure, it’s unhealthy, it’s embarrassing, nevertheless it may have been a lot, a lot worse.


DUCK.  Sure, Uber has come out with a comply with up report, and evidently they’re suggesting {that a} hacking group like LAPSUS$ was accountable.

We’ve spoken about LAPSUS$ on the podcast earlier than.

It’s a form of a “let’s do it for the lulz” sort of factor, the place it doesn’t look as if they’re really after promoting the info, though they may give it away without spending a dime or actually embarrass the corporate with it.

As I say, the embarrassment comes from the obvious extent of the breach, happily, reasonably than its depth.

It looks like the attackers wished to wander round by means of the community as rapidly as doable, grabbing screenshots, saying, “Hey, look, right here’s me in all kinds of issues”…

…together with Slack workspaces; Uber’s menace safety software program (in previous language, the anti-virus); an AWS console; firm journey and bills.

There was a screenshot that I noticed printed that confirmed who’d put within the greatest T&E [travel and expenses] claims in current instances. [LAUGHTER]

We chuckle, however there are worker names in there, in order that’s a nasty look as a result of it’s implying that the individual may have gotten at worker knowledge.

A vSphere digital server console; Google workspaces; and the place the place it appears the hacker really put within the “UBER HAS BEEN HACKED” in capital letters that made the headlines (it even made the Bare Safety headline).

Apparently that was posted to… (oh, expensive, Doug [LAUGHS] – it’s not humorous, but it’s)

…to Uber’s personal bug bounty service, which is a really embarrassing look.


DOUG.  It looks like somebody obtained a maintain of an Uber polo shirt and put it on, and sweet-talked their well past the reception desk saying, “Oh, my badge isn’t working,” or one thing, obtained into the headquarters after which simply began taking footage of stuff.

Then they wrote on the bulletin board within the worker break room that they’ve been hacked.

It looks like this individual may have been an Preliminary Entry Dealer [jargon term for hacker who steals passwords and sells them on] in the event that they actually wished to.

They might have performed so many further unhealthy issues whereas they had been in there.

However they only took footage, and it was a humiliation to Uber.


DUCK.  Sure.

I believe the important thing element that we may add to your analogy of “getting by means of the principle safety checkpoint” is that, on the way in which in, it additionally appears that they had been in a position to attain into the super-secure secret cupboard the place the access-all-areas passes are saved, and purloin one.


DOUG.  Sure. [LAUGHS]


DUCK.  In different phrases, they discovered a password in a PowerShell script, on an brazenly seen community share…

…in order that they solely wanted low stage entry, and that allowed them to get into what was primarily the password supervisor for Uber’s networks.


DOUG.  Sure.

So it’s not that this wasn’t unavoidable.

If we get to the recommendation in your article right here, we have now a number of issues that Uber may have performed in a different way.

Beginning with: “Password managers and two-factor authentication usually are not a panacea.”

Simply because you could have these… that’s a safety gate, nevertheless it’s not the end-all and be-all to maintaining somebody out.


DUCK.  Completely.

We’ll be speaking in regards to the LastPass breach in a minute, the place evidently the attackers didn’t really have to trouble with the 2FA aspect of issues.

They simply waited till the person that they had been shadowing had gone by means of that train themselves, after which “borrowed their go”.

So, certainly, 2FA doesn’t imply, “Oh, now I don’t have to fret about outsiders getting in.”

It does make that preliminary entry a bit more durable, and should make the social engineering extra difficult and extra more likely to stand out.

However as you say, it’s a further safety gate.


DOUG.  And the subsequent one, on the identical observe, is: “When you’re in, you possibly can’t simply let individuals wander round.”

Safety belongs all over the place within the community, not simply on the edge.


DUCK.  Do I hear you saying the phrases Zero Belief, Douglas?


DOUG.  [LAUGHS] I used to be going to…


DUCK.  I do know that feels like a little bit of a gross sales schpiel, and (shock, shock) Sophos has a Zero Belief Community Entry product.

However we have now that product as a result of I believe it’s one thing that’s demanded by the way in which that trendy networks function, so that you just solely get the entry you really need for the duty in hand.

And, if you concentrate on it, that doesn’t simply profit the corporate that’s dividing up its community.

It’s additionally good for customers, as a result of it means they’ll’t make unlucky blunders regardless that they assume they’re making an attempt to do the suitable factor.


DOUG.  And we additionally discuss: “Common cybersecurity measurement and testing”.

Should you’re not ready to try this in-house, contemplate hiring it out, since you want eyes on this across the clock.


DUCK.  Sure.

Two cliches, if I could, Doug?


DOUG.  It’s possible you’ll. [LAUGHS]


DUCK.  Cybersecurity is a journey, not a vacation spot.

You regularly should revisit to verify [A] that you just did accurately what you supposed, and [B] that what you deliberate to do yesterday continues to be a legitimate and helpful defence at the moment.

And the thought of getting someone that will help you assessment what’s occurring, notably while you assume one thing unhealthy has simply occurred, is it implies that you don’t find yourself with safety incidents being main distractions to your common IT and Safety Operations group.

Distractions may really be intentionally seeded by the crooks to behave as a distraction for the assault that they’ve obtained deliberate for later…


DOUG.  After which lastly, we spherical ited out with a few ideas in your employees: “Arrange a cyber safety hotline in your employees to report incidents”, and belief them that will help you out by reporting such incidents.


DUCK.  Sure.

Lots of people have determined that persons are the most important downside.

I believe that’s the improper method to have a look at it.

Individuals are, in actual fact, among the best methods which you can discover issues that you just didn’t count on.

It’s at all times the issues that you just didn’t count on that can catch you out, as a result of in case you had anticipated them, you’d in all probability have prevented them within the first place!

Take the objective of turning everybody in your organisation into eyes and ears in your personal safety group.


DOUG.  Excellent!

And we’ve obtained extra Uber protection.

Paul, you and Chester Wisniewski did an ideal minisode, S3 Ep100.5.

Pure thunder, if I could.

It’s known as: Uber breach – An professional speaks.

You may hear Paul and Chet speaking about this explicit breach in a little bit bit extra depth:


DUCK.  I believe crucial factor that got here out of that minisode of the podcast is what you alluded to earlier, “What if this had been an Preliminary Entry Dealer?”

In different phrases, in the event that they went in particularly to get the passwords and obtained out quietly.

This type of broad-but-shallow assault is definitely surprisingly frequent, and in lots of circumstances, as you recommended, the issue is that you just don’t realise it’s occurred.

These crooks exit of their method to maintain as quiet as doable, and the thought is that they take all these entry passwords, entry tokens, info they’ve obtained…

…and promote it on the darkweb for different crooks who wish to do very particular issues in particular elements of your community.


DOUG.  All proper, we’ll keep on the breach prepare, however we’re simply going to change vehicles on the prepare.

We’re going to stroll throughout and watch out to not fall out onto the platform… however we’re going to get into the LastPass automobile.

They’ve obtained a submit mortem out.

They nonetheless don’t understand how the criminals obtained in, however not less than they admitted it.

And it looks like it wasn’t essentially for the lulz… thus related however totally different to the Uber breach.


DUCK.  Certainly, evidently this one, you may say, was deeper however narrower.

I believe the report is an effective instance of the right way to present info that’s really helpful after an assault.

As you say, they appear to have come out with info that makes it clear what they assume occurred.

They admitted to the “identified unknowns”.

For instance, they mentioned, “It seems to be as if the crooks implanted malware that was in a position to masquerade as a developer who had already logged in with their password and 2FA code.”

They figured that out, however they don’t understand how that implant occurred within the first place, and so they had been first rate sufficient to say they didn’t know.

And I believe that’s fairly good, reasonably than simply going, “Oh, properly, we’ve positively fastened all the issues and this gained’t occur once more.”

If I had been a LastPass person, it will make me extra inclined to imagine the opposite issues that I’ve to depend on them to state…

…specifically that the event community the place their code was stolen is separate from their different networks, in order that the attackers weren’t in a position to attain out and get issues like buyer knowledge or password hashes.

And I’m additionally inclined to simply accept LastPass’s rationalization (as a result of they’re in a position to justify it) that even when the crooks *had* been in a position to leap from the developer community to the cloud storage elements of the community, and even when they’d been in a position to run off with password hashes, it will have been very tough for them to do something with it.

As a result of LastPass merely doesn’t know your grasp password.

They usually have a little bit diagram that explains why they imagine that to be the case.

So, I believe, if I had been a Final Go person, that I might be inclined to imagine them.


DOUG.  I *am* a Final Go person, and I discovered this to be extra reassuring than not.

I wasn’t too nervous about this earlier than, and now I’m barely much less nervous, and definitely not nervous sufficient to dump it wholesale, change all my passwords, and that sort of stuff.

So I assumed it was fairly good.


DUCK.  Certainly, one of many considerations that folks got here out with after we first reported on this breach is, “Properly, the crooks obtained into the supply code management system. In the event that they had been in a position to obtain all this mental property, what in the event that they had been in a position to add some sneaky and unauthorised modifications on the identical time?”

Possibly they ran off with the code so they might promote the mental property, so industrial espionage was their major automobile…

…however what if there was a provide chain assault as properly?

And LastPass did try and reply that query by saying, “We’ve reviewed supply code modifications and so far as we will see, the attackers weren’t in a position to, or didn’t, make any.”

Additionally, they clarify how even when the crooks had made modifications, there are checks and balances that forestall these modifications simply flowing mechanically into the software program that you just may obtain, or that their very own cloud companies may use.

In different phrases, they’ve a bodily separation between the developer community and the manufacturing community, and a full-and-proper code assessment and testing course of is required every time for one thing primarily to leap throughout that hole.

I discovered that reassuring.

They’ve taken precautions that make it much less possible {that a} provide chain assault within the improvement community may attain prospects.

They usually seem to have gone out of their method to confirm that no such modifications had been made anyway.


DOUG.  Alright, there’s extra on that on nakedsecurity.sophos.com, together with a hyperlink to the LastPass briefing itself.

Allow us to now flip to one among our listeners!

Bare Safety Podcast listener Jonas writes in…

…and that is an oldie-but-a-goodie.

I wouldn’t have believed this myself – I’ve heard this story earlier than in numerous contexts, and I really witnessed this as I used to be working as a pc technician again within the early 2000s.

It is a actual downside, and it occurs.

Jonas writes:

“In within the early Nineties, our laptop classroom had a whole lot of Apple Macintosh Classics with the three.5-inch floppy drives.

In these days, while you wanted to put in issues, you probably did so with a bunch of disks – Insert disk 1; Insert disk 2; and so forth.

Properly, one among my classmates took the set up directions too actually.

She began with the primary diskette, and after some time the set up course of instructed her to ‘Please insert disk 2’, and she or he did.”

Simply let that sit there for a little bit bit…


DUCK.  [LAUGHS A BIT TOO LOUDLY] We shouldn’t chuckle, eh?

The directions may have been clearer!


DOUG.  Jonas continues:

“When retelling the story, she mentioned, ‘The second disk was a bit more durable to get in, however I managed to drive it in. Nevertheless it nonetheless saved asking for the second disk.’

So she didn’t perceive why it nonetheless wanted disk 2 when she had already inserted disk 1 *and* disk 2… and it was fairly arduous to get the 2 disks out.

And even then, the floppy drive by no means labored once more on that Mac anyway.

It wanted to get replaced, however the entire class discovered you wanted to take away the earlier disk earlier than inserting the subsequent one.”


DUCK.  Properly, there you could have it!


DOUG.  I at all times bear in mind my days as a technician at CompUSA.

We had a counter.

Individuals would lug their desktop computer systems in, put the desktop up on the counter, and inform us what was improper.

I noticed a buyer are available in and instantly noticed a diskette wedged within the 3.5-inch floppy drive, and I assumed. “Oh my God. I’ve heard this story. I’ve examine it on the web and I’m lastly experiencing it in actual life.”

It didn’t get all the way in which in, however they managed to midway jam a second diskette into the floppy drive, and so they couldn’t get it out.

So we needed to open the case of the pc, disconnect and unscrew the floppy drive, pull the floppy drive out of the entrance of the pc, after which it took a few us to dislodge that diskette.

And, after all, the disk drive had to get replaced…

Thanks very a lot, Jonas, for sending that in.

You probably have an attention-grabbing story, remark or query you’d prefer to submit, we’d like to learn it on the podcast.

You may e mail ideas@sophos.com, you possibly can touch upon any one among our articles, or you possibly can hit us up on social: @NakedSecurity.

That’s our present for at the moment.

Thanks very a lot for listening.

For Paul Ducklin, I’m Doug Aamoth, reminding you till subsequent time to…


BOTH.  Keep safe!

[MUSICAL MODEM]

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