Morris Tanenbaum, Inventor of the Silicon Microchip, Dies at 94

Morris Tanenbaum

Silicon microchip inventor

Fellow, 94; died 26 February

Tanenbaum’s analysis within the mid-Nineteen Fifties proved that silicon was a greater semiconductor materials for transistors than germanium, which was generally used on the time. His discovery paved the best way for extra environment friendly transistors vital in applied sciences that ushered within the Data Age.

He started his profession in 1952 at Bell Labs, in Murray Hill, N.J., as a researcher in its chemical physics division. Two years later, below the route of physicist and inventor William Shockley, who on the time labored at Bell Labs, Tanenbaum started investigating whether or not silicon crystals may very well be used for transistors.

In 1955 he and colleague Ernest Buehler demonstrated the primary silicon transistor.

Tanenbaum later developed the primary gas-diffused silicon transistor, which may amplify and change alerts above 100 megahertz at a switching velocity 10 instances that of earlier silicon transistors.

Regardless of Tanenbaum’s early work on silicon transistors, AT&T didn’t assist additional analysis or development of the expertise. On the time, Bell Labs was the analysis arm of AT&T. Though Bell Labs had “a big technological lead in silicon transistor expertise, it stopped doing correct analysis within the area—partly as a result of it simply wasn’t instantly related to AT&T’s enterprise—so silicon transistor expertise, together with the built-in circuit, was finished by Intel and Texas Devices as an alternative,” Tanenbaum stated in a 1999 oral historical past performed by the IEEE Historical past Heart.

Tanenbaum as an alternative labored on different new applied sciences within the many years that adopted. In 1962 he was named assistant director of Bell Labs’ metallurgical division. He led the crew there that created the primary high-field superconducting magnets, which at the moment are utilized in MRI machines and different medical imaging applied sciences. Later he helped develop optical fiber and digital phone switching.

Tanenbaum went on to function president of AT&T’s New Jersey Bell (now a part of Verizon) within the late Nineteen Seventies and early Nineteen Eighties.

He was appointed president of AT&T Communications in 1984. He retired 5 years later as AT&T’s vice chairman and chief monetary officer.

A member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, he additionally was a Fellow of the American Bodily Society and a member of the MIT board of trustees.

He obtained a bachelor’s diploma in chemistry in 1949 from Johns Hopkins College, in Baltimore, and earned a Ph.D. in bodily chemistry from Princeton.

Adolf Goetzberger

Photovoltaics pioneer

Life Fellow, 94; died 24 February

Goetzberger was an early proponent of photo voltaic vitality applied sciences. Right now photo voltaic is the third largest renewable-electricity sector behind hydropower and wind.

Along with physicist Armin Zastrow, he pioneered the idea of agrivoltaics—the usage of land for each agriculture and photo voltaic vitality technology.

After receiving a doctorate in physics in 1955 from Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, in Munich Goetzberger joined Siemens, a multinational conglomerate, additionally in Munich. He then moved to the USA in 1958 to work as a senior scientist at Shockley Semiconductor Laboratory, in Palo Alto, Calif.

After 5 years at Shockley, he left to affix Bell Labs, in Murray Hill, N.J., the place he performed analysis on metal-oxide-semiconductor expertise. He returned to Germany in 1968 and have become director of the Fraunhofer Institute for Utilized Stable State Physics (IAF), in Freiburg. Three years later, whereas working on the IAF, he was named an honorary professor within the College of Freiburg physics division.

In 1981 Goetzberger based the Fraunhofer Institute for Photo voltaic Vitality Programs (ISE)—now Europe’s largest photo voltaic analysis institute—additionally in Freiburg. That very same yr, he and Zastrow launched the agrivoltaic idea, through which photo voltaic panels are constructed atop greenhouses or in constructions above area crops to maximise land use. As of 2021, agrivoltaic methods had been able to producing greater than 14 gigawatts of electrical energy, in keeping with an ISE estimate.

Within the early Nineteen Eighties, Goetzberger performed pioneering analysis into fluorescent planar collector-concentrators, using photovoltaic (PV) materials combined with fluorescent dyes to separate the assorted wavelengths of sunshine and convert them utilizing photo voltaic cells with totally different band gaps. The analysis paved the best way for simpler solar energy technology. Beneath Goetzberger’s management, the ISE developed the primary extremely environment friendly, absolutely digital inverter for stand-alone PV methods.

Goetzberger was ISE director till he retired in 1993. He then served as president of the German Photo voltaic Vitality Society (DGS), from 1993 to 1997. Primarily based in Berlin, the DGS helps the introduction of photo voltaic applied sciences and renewable vitality sources into the facility grid.

He coauthored the seminal 2005 textbook Photovoltaic Photo voltaic Vitality Technology.

Goetzberger, who held greater than 30 patents in Europe, was awarded a Lifetime Achievement Award from the European Patent Workplace in 2009. In 1997 he obtained three prestigious awards: the Karl Böer Photo voltaic Vitality Medal of Advantage from the Worldwide Photo voltaic Vitality Society, the Becquerel Prize from the European Fee, and the Cherry Award from the IEEE Electron Gadgets Society. IEEE EDS additionally honored him in 1983 with its Ebers Award for his growth of the silicon area impact transistor, which makes use of an electrical area to regulate the move of present in a semiconductor. Goetzberger was the primary German to obtain the respect.

Peter W. Sauer

2022 IEEE Nikola Tesla Award recipient

Life Fellow, 75; died 27 December

Sauer was a professor {of electrical} and pc engineering on the College of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, the place he taught programs and directed analysis on energy methods.

He obtained the 2022 IEEE Nikola Tesla Award “for contributions to dynamic modeling and simulation of synchronous mills and for management in energy engineering schooling.”

Sauer served within the U.S. Air Power as {an electrical} engineer, designing and setting up airfield lighting and electrical distribution methods at Langley Air Power Base, in Virginia. He left energetic obligation in 1973 however continued to serve within the Air Power Reserve for almost three many years, retiring in 1998 as a lieutenant colonel.

He joined the College of Illinois in 1977 as a professor. His analysis there was targeted on the way to enhance the soundness of electrical energy methods utilizing large-scale simulations.

In 1991 and 1992 he served as program director of energy methods within the Nationwide Science Basis’s electrical and communication methods division.

In 1996 he cofounded PowerWorld, an influence system info and evaluation firm, in Champaign, Ailing. Transmission planners and methods operators use the corporate’s PowerWorld Simulator, a collection of interactive software program instruments, to mannequin energy grid operations below totally different situations. He retired in 2019.

Sauer, a member of the Nationwide Academy of Engineering, wrote Energy System Dynamics and Stability, and he authored or coauthored greater than 200 technical papers.

He obtained an IEEE Energy & Vitality SocietyLifetime Achievement Award in 2020 “for distinctive career-long contributions to energy methods modeling and dynamic evaluation, and for management in energy engineering schooling.”

After receiving a bachelor’s diploma in electrical engineering in 1969 from the College of Missouri at Rolla (now the Missouri College of Science and Know-how), he went on to earn grasp’s and doctoral levels in EE from Purdue College, in West Lafayette, Ind., in 1974 and 1977, respectively.

Robert W. “Bob” Lawson

Telecommunications engineer

Senior member, 89; died 18 November

Lawson labored for Bell Phone of Pennsylvania (now a part of AT&T) in Pittsburgh for 35 years. He climbed the ranks and retired in 1988 as a member of the chief crew.

In the course of the Korean Warfare, he served within the U.S. Navy as a cryptologic technician specializing in airborne, shipborne, and land-based radar alerts.

He started his civilian profession in 1953 as a phone set up skilled at Bell. On the time, he additionally attended evening faculty on the College of Pennsylvania, in Philadelphia, the place he earned an affiliate diploma in engineering in 1963.

After retiring from Bell in 1988, he started working with the U.S. authorities as a telecommunications contractor. He additionally labored for a number of years as an engineer at IT providers firm Unisys in Blue Bell, Pa. He then turned a advisor; his major consumer was the Philippine Lengthy Distance Phone Co. (now PLDT), in Makati. He retired from consulting in 1998.

Lawson loved taking part in pool, flying stunt kites, singing, taking part in golf, and serving to his neighbors remedy expertise issues.

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